DrPrashant June - 30 - 2010 antidiuretic drugs

by Teena Bhayal

Diabetes Incipidus-Definition:-

Diabetes Incipidus is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water.

Causes:-

  • Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood.
  • The amount of water conserved is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin.
  • ADH is a hormone produced in hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain.
  • Diabetes insipidus is  caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus.
  • When Diabetes insipidus is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called   nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
  • Central diabetes insipidus is caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a

result of:

  • Head injury
  • Infection
  • Surgery
  • Tumor
  • Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus involves a defect in the parts of the kidneys that reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It occurs less often than central DI.
  • Nephrogenic DI may occur as an inherited disorder in which male children receive the abnormal gene that causes the disease from their mothers.
  • Nephrogenic DI may also be caused by:
  1. certain drugs (such as lithium, ampphotercin B and demeclocycline)
  1. b. kidney disease(such as polycystic kidney disease)

Symptoms:-

?   Excessive thirst

a.  May be intense or uncontrollable

b.  May involve a craving for ice water

?  Excessive urine volume.

Signs and Test:-

  1. MRI of head.
  2. Urine analysis
  3. Urine output

Treatment:-

  • Central diabetes insipidus may be controlled with vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP)
  • as either a nasal spray or tablets.
  • Hereditary nephrogenic DI and lithium-induced nephrogenic DI are treated by drinking enough fluids to match urine output and with drugs that lower urine output.
  • Drugs used to treat nephrogenic DI include:
  • Anti-inflammatory medication (indomethacin)
  • Diuretics [hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amiloride-is drug of choice for lithium induced DI]
  • Hydrochlorothizide
  • Chlorpropamide-ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC
  • Carbamazepime-is an antiepileptic

Related Post

Activate the Wp-related-posts plugin to see the related post list!

Comments are closed.

-->
Prof.Dr.Prashant,MD (popularly known as Prashant Sir)is one of the most popular faculties of pharmacology in Index Medical College ,Indore ,MP,Malwa region of India. He is well adored by medical,dental,nursing,physiotherapy,occupational therapy and pharmacy students for his story telling style of teaching pharmacology in clinical settings.Hundreds of his students have cleared pre postgraduate entrance exams,in flying colors, remembering his mnemonics of pharmacology .This Website is his latest en-devour to simplify the difficulties faced by students especially those who find pharmacology a bit difficult. If you ever feel ,that you/Your child is benefited by this website,or by Dr Prashant\'s Unique teaching,if you support the cause of this website then you can deposit any amount as Gurudakshina/charitable Donation to SBI AC 32346197847 and sms us at 09826247595 or email at drprashantw@gmail.com.Your contribution will be highly appreciated.-Editor