by Teena Bhayal
Diabetes Incipidus is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water.
- Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood.
- The amount of water conserved is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin.
- ADH is a hormone produced in hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain.
- Diabetes insipidus is caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus.
- When Diabetes insipidus is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
- Central diabetes insipidus is caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a
- Head injury
- Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus involves a defect in the parts of the kidneys that reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It occurs less often than central DI.
- Nephrogenic DI may occur as an inherited disorder in which male children receive the abnormal gene that causes the disease from their mothers.
- Nephrogenic DI may also be caused by:
- certain drugs (such as lithium, ampphotercin B and demeclocycline)
- b. kidney disease(such as polycystic kidney disease)
? Excessive thirst
a. May be intense or uncontrollable
b. May involve a craving for ice water
? Excessive urine volume.
Signs and Test:-
- MRI of head.
- Urine analysis
- Urine output
- Central diabetes insipidus may be controlled with vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP)
- as either a nasal spray or tablets.
- Hereditary nephrogenic DI and lithium-induced nephrogenic DI are treated by drinking enough fluids to match urine output and with drugs that lower urine output.
- Drugs used to treat nephrogenic DI include:
- Anti-inflammatory medication (indomethacin)
- Diuretics [hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amiloride-is drug of choice for lithium induced DI]
- Chlorpropamide-ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC
- Carbamazepime-is an antiepileptic